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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)  
 QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2021
Or
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to         

Commission file number: 001-36080
IVERIC bio, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 20-8185347
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Five Penn Plaza Suite 2372 10001
New York, NY(Zip Code)
(Address of principal executive offices)
(212845-8200
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per shareISEEThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes     No
As of November 5, 2021 there were 114,641,279 shares of Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.





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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “goals,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend”, “may,” “might,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.
The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, among other things, statements about:
the potential benefits of our business plan and strategy, including our goal to deliver treatment options for all stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD);
our expectations regarding the impact of results from GATHER1, our completed Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating Zimura for the treatment of Geographic Atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD, on our business and regulatory strategy, including our plans to pursue development of Zimura in intermediate AMD;
the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of GATHER2, our ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating Zimura for the treatment of GA secondary to AMD, including expectations regarding receipt of topline data from the trial and regarding patient retention, and expectations regarding the potential for Zimura to receive regulatory approval for the treatment of GA secondary to AMD based on the clinical trial results we have received to date and the future results from the GATHER2 clinical trial and any other trials we or a potential collaborator may conduct;
our plans and expectations for initiating a clinical trial evaluating Zimura for the treatment of intermediate AMD, and for evaluating, obtaining rights to and developing sustained release delivery technologies for Zimura;
our plans and strategy for the potential commercialization of Zimura, including hiring of medical affairs and commercialization personnel, building a commercialization infrastructure, including sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, and our expectations regarding the market dynamics for treatments for GA and other commercial matters;
our ability to establish and maintain arrangements and capabilities for the manufacture of Zimura and our other product candidates, including scale up and validation of the manufacturing process for Zimura drug substance and securing the supply of Zimura drug product and the polyethylene glycol (PEG) starting material for our expected needs;
the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of STAR, our ongoing Phase 2b screening trial evaluating Zimura for the treatment of autosomal recessive Stargardt disease, including expectations regarding the recruitment of additional patients for this trial;
the actual and expected effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related response measures on our business and operations, including the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of our research and development programs, our supply chain, the work of our third-party vendors and collaborators, the work and well-being of our employees, and our financial position;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and needs for, and ability to obtain, additional financing;
our plans and ability to consummate business development transactions, including potential collaboration opportunities for further development and potential commercialization of Zimura and potential collaboration or out-licensing opportunities for further development of IC-100 and IC-200; and in-licenses or other opportunities to acquire rights to additional product candidates or technologies to treat retinal diseases, including sustained release delivery technologies for Zimura;
the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of our ongoing and planned clinical trials, including statements regarding the timing of the initiation and completion of, and the receipt of results from, such clinical trials, the costs to conduct such clinical trials, and the impact of the results of such clinical trials on our business strategy;
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the timing, costs, conduct and outcome of our ongoing and planned research and preclinical development activities, including statements regarding the timing of the initiation and completion of, and the receipt of results from, such activities, the costs to conduct such activities, and the impact of the results of such activities on our business strategy;
the timing of and our ability to submit investigational new drug applications for, and to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates, and the ability of our product candidates to meet existing or future regulatory standards;
the potential advantages of our product candidates and other technologies that we are pursuing, including our hypotheses regarding complement factor C5 inhibition and HtrA1 inhibition as potentially relevant mechanisms of action to treat GA and other stages of AMD, and of gene therapy, including the use of minigenes;
our estimates regarding the number of patients affected by the diseases our product candidates and development programs are intended to treat;
our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our product candidates;
the rate and degree of potential market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates, if approved;
the potential receipt of revenues from future sales of our product candidates, if approved;
our personnel and human capital resources;
our intellectual property position;
the impact of existing and new governmental laws and regulations; and
our competitive position.
We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and our stockholders should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, particularly in the “Risk Factors” section, that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, licenses, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.
You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we have filed as exhibits to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our other periodic reports, completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are made as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and we do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q includes statistical and other industry and market data that we obtained from industry publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications and third-party research, surveys and studies generally indicate that their information has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information.
Summary of Principal Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our company speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional risk and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we presently deem less significant may also impair our business operations. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this summary, and other risks that we face, can be found in Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors section of this Quarterly Report on
Form 10-Q, and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and
our other filings with the Securities Exchange Commission, before making an investment decision regarding our common
stock. The forward-looking statements discussed above are qualified by these risk factors. If any of the following risks occur,
our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

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1.We are a development-stage company without any approved products. The value of your investment is highly dependent on the success of Zimura and our other research and development programs, which carry numerous risks. We are working to transition to being a company capable of commercializing a pharmaceutical product, if approved, and may not be successful in this transition.

2.We have had a history of operating at significant losses and expect to continue to do so until we can successfully commercialize one or more of our product candidates, if ever. We may never achieve profitability.

3.We may need additional financing in order to finish developing and start commercializing one or more of our product candidates, if approved. Securing financing may be challenging and/or dilutive to our shareholders, and if we are unable to secure financing when needed, we may need to curtail our development programs or planned commercialization activities.

4.The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected our business, for example, by impacting the initiation and conduct of our clinical trials, the work of our academic collaborators and contract manufacturing organizations, and aspects of our supply chain. Because of the ongoing and fluid nature of the pandemic, it will continue to affect our business.

5.We may not be successful in obtaining rights to and developing a sustained release delivery technology for Zimura.

6.Drug development is inherently risky with numerous scientific, technical, regulatory and other challenges. A promising drug candidate can fail at any time and for any number of reasons.

7.We are pursuing the development of our product candidates using novel mechanisms of action targeting indications for which there are no approved products. These include, for example, complement inhibition and inhibition of High temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 protein for GA, and complement inhibition for intermediate AMD and autosomal recessive Stargardt disease. These approaches carry numerous scientific, regulatory and other risks.

8.Regulatory authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, may disagree with the design of or our analyses or conclusions from our clinical trials of Zimura in GA or our planned development pathway for Zimura in intermediate AMD. Since receipt of the 12-month results from GATHER1, we have not had any formal interactions with the EMA regarding our planned regulatory pathway for Zimura in GA and the EMA and other regulatory authorities may disagree with the requirements of the FDA. The results of the GATHER2 trial may not replicate the results of the GATHER1 trial. We may need to conduct additional clinical trials or nonclinical studies for Zimura in order to obtain marketing approval.

9.We may discover safety issues with our product candidates due to known and currently unknown factors, which could hamper their further development.

10.Manufacturing our product candidates is technically complex, expensive and time consuming. We may face issues with scaling up and validating the manufacturing process for Zimura. We may not be able to secure adequate supply of Zimura drug product and the PEG starting material for our future needs, including potential commercial launch. Issues with manufacturing can derail the further development or commercialization of our product candidates.

11.We face substantial competition from large pharmaceutical companies, smaller biotech companies and others.

12.To commercialize any of our product candidates, if approved, we will need to set up a sales and marketing infrastructure. We have only recently hired commercialization personnel and will need to continue building our commercial infrastructure. The success of our commercialization efforts will depend in part on the degree of acceptance of our product candidates by patients, the medical community and payors.

13.We do not have any internal manufacturing facilities and rely heavily on our third-party contract manufacturers. They may have different business priorities than we do and may fail to meet our expectations or follow regulatory requirements, including current good manufacturing practices requirements. We may need to engage alternative manufacturers or suppliers sooner than we currently expect.

14.We rely heavily on our third-party contract research organizations as well as our clinical trial sites and academic collaborators. They may have different priorities than we do and may fail to follow regulatory requirements, including good laboratory practice, good clinical practice and other data integrity requirements.

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15.We may pursue a collaboration for the further development and potential commercialization of Zimura in one or more territories outside the United States, and plan to pursue a collaboration or out-license for the further development and potential commercialization of IC-100 and IC-200. For any of these, we may not be able to enter into a collaboration or out-license on favorable terms, or at all. Even if we are able to do so, the collaboration or out-license may not be successful.

16.We rely on patents to protect our proprietary position. We may not obtain the patent rights that we seek and/or we may not be able to exclude our competitors from relevant markets. We may be subject to litigation involving our patents or those of third parties.

17.We are highly dependent on our information security systems and those of third parties we work with. A cybersecurity incident may cause interruptions to the progress of our development programs and operations, financial or regulatory penalties and/or harm to our reputation.

18.We rely on a limited number of employees to conduct our operations, including supervising our outside vendors. The skills needed to advance our research and development programs and plan for commercialization of our product candidates are highly specialized. We plan to hire additional qualified personnel, including commercialization and medical affairs personnel, to support the growth of our business. Hiring these personnel and retaining existing employees may be challenging.

19.We need to satisfy numerous regulatory requirements in order to secure marketing approval and reimbursement approval, if applicable, for any of our product candidates. These requirements differ across jurisdictions. Failure to satisfy and maintain those requirements can preclude us from commercializing our products.

20.We and any commercialization partners are subject to numerous healthcare laws and regulations governing our relationships with patients, healthcare professionals and third-party payors. Failure to comply with these requirements may adversely affect our business, including as we prepare for potential commercialization of Zimura.

21.The reimbursement and payment regime for pharmaceutical products in the United States remains in flux, including as a result of the implementation of and litigation involving the Affordable Care Act. There are ongoing, and often bipartisan, efforts to reduce the prices of pharmaceutical products.
USE OF TRADEMARKS
    The trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are the property of their respective owners. We have omitted the ® and ™ designations, as applicable, for the trademarks named in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q after their first reference in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
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PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
IVERIC bio, Inc.
Condensed Unaudited Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 September 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Assets  
Current assets  
Cash and cash equivalents$179,879 $66,373 
Available for sale securities62,091 143,674 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,070 4,791 
Income tax receivable 1,765 
Total current assets246,040 216,603 
Property and equipment, net2 26 
Right-of-use asset, net1,748 120 
Other assets 5 
Total assets$247,790 $216,754 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity   
Current liabilities  
Accrued research and development expenses$11,368 $12,284 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses8,130 12,792 
Lease liability945 54 
Total current liabilities20,443 25,130 
Lease liability, non-current861 61 
Total liabilities21,304 25,191 
Stockholders' equity  
Preferred stock—$0.001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued or outstanding
  
Common stock—$0.001 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized, 104,237,878 and 90,120,797 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
104 90 
Additional paid-in capital872,955 756,543 
Accumulated deficit(646,562)(565,073)
Accumulated other comprehensive income(11)3 
Total stockholders' equity226,486 191,563 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$247,790 $216,754 
   
The accompanying unaudited notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
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IVERIC bio, Inc.
Condensed Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands, except per share data)
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2021202020212020
Operating expenses:   
Research and development$17,935 $18,841 $59,972 $45,311 
General and administrative6,648 6,643 21,688 17,930 
Total operating expenses24,583 25,484 81,660 63,241 
Loss from operations(24,583)(25,484)(81,660)(63,241)
Interest income42 33 184 437 
Other expense, net(10)1 (13)(6)
Loss before income tax benefit(24,551)(25,450)(81,489)(62,810)
Income tax benefit   3,695 
Net loss$(24,551)$(25,450)$(81,489)$(59,115)
Comprehensive loss$(24,565)$(25,449)$(81,503)$(59,114)
Net loss per common share:  
Basic and diluted$(0.23)$(0.27)$(0.84)$(0.87)
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic and diluted105,217 92,675 97,370 67,931 
   
The accompanying unaudited notes are an integral part of these financial statements.

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IVERIC bio, Inc.
Condensed Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(in thousands)
 Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional
paid-in
capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2020 $ 90,121 $90 $756,543 $(565,073)$3 $191,563 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock compensation plans— — 49 — 129 — — 129 
Share-based compensation— — — — 2,292 — — 2,292 
Net loss— — — — — (26,795)— (26,795)
Unrealized loss on available for sale securities, net of tax— — — — — — (1)(1)
Balance at March 31, 2021 $ 90,170 $90 $758,964 $(591,868)$2 $167,188 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock compensation plans— — 217 — 448 — — 448 
Share-based compensation— — — — 2,079 — — 2,079 
Net loss— — — — — (30,143)— (30,143)
Unrealized loss on available for sale securities, net of tax— — — — — — 1 1 
Balance at June 30, 2021  90,387 90 761,491 (622,011)3 139,573 
Issuance of common stock and pre-funded warrants through underwritten offering, net of issuances costs— — 13,398 14 107,743 — — 107,757 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock compensation plans — — 453 — 1,095 — — 1,095 
Share-based compensation— — — — 2,626 — — 2,626 
Net loss— — — — — (24,551)— (24,551)
Unrealized loss on available for sale securities, net of tax— $— — $— $— $— $(14)(14)
Balance at September 30, 2021 $ $104,238 $104 $872,955 $(646,562)$(11)$226,486 
 Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional
paid-in
capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Total
 SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2019 $ 49,627 $50 $597,679 $(480,526)$ $117,203 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock compensation plans— — 105 — 179 — — 179 
Share-based compensation— — — — 2,324 — — 2,324 
Net loss— — — — — (15,076)— (15,076)
Balance at March 31, 2020 $ 49,732 $50 $600,182 $(495,602)$ $104,630 
Issuance of common stock and pre-funded warrants through underwritten offering, net of issuance costs— — 28,503 28 116,855 — — 116,883 
Issuance of common stock in connection with private offering, net of issuance costs.— — 8,649 9 33,228 — — 33,237 
Issuance of common stock under the exercise of pre-funded warrants— — 2,500 2 (2)— —  
Issuance of common stock under employee stock compensation plans— — 105 — 7 — — 7 
Share-based compensation— — — — 1,873 — — 1,873 
Net loss— — — — — (18,589)— (18,589)
Balance at Balance at June 30, 2020 $ 89,489 $89 $752,143 $(514,191)$ $238,041 
Issuance of common stock under employee stock compensation plans— $— 65 $1 $146 $— $— 147 
Share-based compensation— $— — $— $1,847 $— $— 1,847 
Net loss— $— — $— $— $(25,450)$— (25,450)
Unrealized gain on available for sale securities, net of tax— $— — $— $— $— $1 1 
Balance at September 30, 2020  89,554 90 754,136 (539,641)1 214,586 

The accompanying unaudited notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
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IVERIC bio, Inc.
Condensed Unaudited Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
 Nine Months Ended September 30,
 20212020
Operating Activities  
Net loss(81,489)$(59,115)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities  
Depreciation and other expense24 108 
Amortization of premium and discounts on investment securities918 115 
Share-based compensation6,997 6,044 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:  
Income tax receivable1,765  
Prepaid expense and other assets726 542 
Accrued interest receivable449 (112)
Accrued research and development expenses(916)6,007 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses(4,662)1,383 
Change in working capital63  
Net cash used in operating activities(76,125)(45,028)
Investing Activities  
Purchase of marketable securities(56,245)(108,305)
Maturities of marketable securities136,447  
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities80,202 (108,305)
Financing Activities  
Proceeds from employee stock plan purchases 1,672 333 
Proceeds from follow-on public offering, net107,757 116,883 
Proceeds from private-placement, net 33,237 
Net cash provided by financing activities109,429 150,453 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents113,506 (2,880)
Cash and cash equivalents  
Beginning of period66,373 125,699 
End of period$179,879 $122,819 
Supplemental disclosure of cash paid
Income tax refunds received$1,765 $3,327 

   The accompanying unaudited notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
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IVERIC bio, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per share data)
1. Business
Description of Business and Organization
IVERIC bio, Inc. (“the Company” or “IVERIC”) is a science-driven biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel treatments for retinal diseases with significant unmet medical needs. The Company is committed to having a positive impact on patients’ lives by delivering high-quality, safe and effective treatments designed to address debilitating retina diseases including all stages of age-related macular degeneration (“AMD”).
The Company’s lead asset is its clinical stage product candidate Zimura® (avacincaptad pegol), a complement C5
inhibitor. It is currently targeting the following diseases with Zimura:

Geographic Atrophy (“GA”), which is the advanced stage of AMD, and is characterized by marked thinning or atrophy of retinal tissue, leading to irreversible loss of vision;

intermediate AMD, which is an earlier stage of AMD that precedes GA; and

autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (“STGD1”), which is an orphan inherited condition characterized by progressive damage to the central portion of the retina (the “macula”) and other retinal tissue, leading to loss of vision.

In July 2021, the Company completed patient enrollment for GATHER2, its Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of Zimura for the treatment of GA secondary to AMD. The Company has also received a written agreement from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) under a Special Protocol Assessment for the overall design of GATHER2. The Company expects topline data from the GATHER2 trial to become available during the second half of 2022, approximately one year after the enrollment of the last patient plus the time needed for database lock and analysis. The Company also plans to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating Zimura for patients with intermediate AMD during 2022. The Company expects data from this trial, if positive, together with other supportive data, may be sufficient to file a supplemental new drug application with the FDA and a supplemental marketing authorization application with the European Medicines Agency.

In addition to Zimura, the Company is developing its preclinical product candidate IC-500, a High temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 protein (“HtrA1”) inhibitor, for GA secondary to AMD and potentially other age-related retinal diseases. Based on current timelines, the Company expects to submit an investigational new drug application to the FDA for IC-500 during the second half of 2022.

The Company’s portfolio also includes two preclinical stage gene therapy product candidates (IC-100 and IC-200)
and several ongoing gene therapy research programs, each of which uses adeno-associated virus (“AAV”) for gene delivery. These AAV mediated gene therapy programs are targeting the following orphan inherited retinal diseases (“IRDs”):

rhodopsin-mediated autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (“RHO-adRP”), which is characterized by progressive and severe bilateral loss of vision leading to blindness;

IRDs associated with mutations in the BEST1 gene, including Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (“Best disease”);

Leber Congenital Amaurosis type 10 (“LCA10”), which is characterized by severe bilateral loss of vision at or soon after birth;

STGD1; and

IRDs associated with mutations in the USH2A gene, which include Usher syndrome type 2A, and USH2A-associated non-syndromic autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.

As the Company focuses its efforts on and prioritizes the development of Zimura, it has been considering its development options for IC-100 and IC-200, which the Company has been developing for RHO-adRP and BEST1-related IRDs, respectively. It currently plans to seek a collaborator or licensee for the future development and potential commercialization of these product candidates.
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2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the notes to the audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”) for the year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 4, 2021.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
In the opinion of management, the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals, necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial statements for interim periods in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The information included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included in the Annual Report.
The year-end condensed consolidated balance sheet data presented for comparative purposes was derived from the Company’s audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by U.S. GAAP. The results of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for the full year or for any other subsequent interim period.
Segment and Geographic Information
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating and reportable segment.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. The Company bases its estimates and judgments on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances. The amounts of assets and liabilities reported in the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheets and the amount of expenses reported for each of the periods presented are affected by estimates and assumptions, which are used for, but not limited to, accounting for research and development costs, accounting for share-based compensation and accounting for income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The carrying amounts reported in the Balance Sheets for cash and cash equivalents are valued at cost, which approximates their fair value.
Available for Sale Securities
The Company considers securities with original maturities of greater than 90 days to be available for sale securities. Available for sale securities with original maturities of greater than one year are recorded as non-current assets. Available for sale securities are recorded at fair value and unrealized gains and losses are recorded within other comprehensive income.
On a quarterly basis, the Company reviews the status of each security in an unrealized loss position, to evaluate the existence of potential credit losses. The Company first considers whether it intends to sell, or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value through income. For securities that do not meet this criteria, the Company considers a number of factors to determine if the decline in fair value has resulted from credit losses or other factors, including but not limited to: (1) the extent of the decline; (2) changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency; (3) any adverse conditions specific to the security; and (4) other market conditions that may affect the fair value of the security. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss exists and the present value of cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, an allowance for credit losses is required for the credit loss. Any impairment that has not been recorded through an allowance for credit losses is recognized in other comprehensive income.
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Financial Instruments
Cash equivalents and available for sale securities are reflected in the accompanying financial statements at fair value. The carrying amount of accounts payable and accrued expenses, including accrued research and development expenses, approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of those instruments.
Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The fair value standard also establishes a three-level hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
The Company reviews investments on a periodic basis for other than temporary impairments. This review is subjective as it requires management to evaluate whether an event or change in circumstances has occurred in the period that may have a significant adverse effect on the fair value of the investment. The Company uses the market approach to measure fair value for its financial assets. The market approach uses prices and other relevant information generated by market transactions involving identical or comparable assets. The Company classifies its corporate debt securities within the fair value hierarchy as Level 2 assets, as it primarily utilizes quoted market prices or rates for similar instruments to value these securities.
The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability on the measurement date. The three levels are defined as follows:
Level 1—inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for an identical asset or liability in an active market. The Company's Level 1 assets consist of investments in money market funds and U.S. Treasury securities.
Level 2—inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for a similar asset or liability in an active market or model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs are observable for substantially the full term of the asset or liability. The Company's Level 2 assets consist of investments in investment-grade corporate debt securities.
Level 3—inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement of the asset or liability. The Company does not hold any assets that are measured using Level 3 inputs.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company's financial instruments that are exposed to concentration of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and available for sale securities. The Company maintains its cash in bank accounts, the balances of which generally exceed federally insured limits. The Company maintains its cash equivalents and available for sale securities in investments in money market funds, in U.S. Treasury securities, asset-backed securities and investment-grade corporate debt securities with original maturities of 90 days or less.
The Company believes it is not exposed to significant credit risk on its cash, cash equivalents and available for sale securities.
Concentration of Suppliers
The Company historically relied upon a single third-party manufacturer to provide the drug substance for Zimura on a purchase order basis. The Company also historically relied upon a single third-party manufacturer to provide fill/finish services for clinical supplies of Zimura. The Company has engaged one additional third-party manufacturer to provide drug substance for Zimura and one additional third-party manufacturer to provide fill/finish services for clinical supplies of Zimura. In addition, the Company currently relies upon a single third-party supplier to supply on a purchase order basis the polyethylene glycol starting material used to manufacture Zimura. Furthermore, the Company and its contract manufacturers currently rely upon sole-source suppliers of certain raw materials and other specialized components of production used in the manufacture and fill/finish of Zimura. The Company currently relies exclusively upon a single third-party contract manufacturer for IC-100 and IC-200 and also relies on sole-source suppliers for certain starting materials used in the manufacture of such product candidates. The Company currently relies upon a single third-party contract manufacturer to conduct process development, scale-up and GMP manufacture of the drug substance for IC-500 for preclinical toxicology studies and early-stage clinical trials and a single third-party contract manufacturer to conduct fill/finish services for IC-500. If the Company’s third-party manufacturers or fill/finish service providers should become unavailable to the Company for any reason, including as a result of capacity constraints, different business objectives, financial difficulties, insolvency or the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company believes that there are a limited number of potential replacement manufacturers, and the Company likely would incur added costs and delays in identifying or qualifying such replacements.
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Foreign Currency Translation
The Company considers the U.S. dollar to be its functional currency. Expenses denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rate on the date the expense is incurred. The effect of exchange rate fluctuations on translating foreign currency assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars is included in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss. Foreign exchange transaction gains and losses are included in the results of operations and are not material in the Company's financial statements.
Leases
The Company determines if an arrangement contains a lease at inception. For arrangements where the Company is the lessee, it recognizes a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and operating lease liability on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet. ROU lease assets represent the Company's right to use the underlying asset for the lease term and the lease obligation represents the Company's commitment to make the lease payments arising from the lease. Right-of-use lease assets and obligations are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. As the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit discount rate, the Company has used an estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. ROU lease asset includes any lease payments made prior to commencement and excludes any lease incentives. The lease term may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, subject to any changes in the lease or expectations regarding the terms. Variable lease costs such as common area costs and property taxes are expensed as incurred. For all office lease agreements the Company combines lease and nonlease components. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment, which consists mainly of clinical and laboratory equipment, computers, software, other office equipment, and leasehold improvements, are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, generally three to ten years, using the straight-line method. Amortization of leasehold improvements is recorded over the shorter of the lease term or estimated useful life of the related asset.
Research and Development
The Company's research and development expenses primarily consist of costs associated with the manufacturing, development and preclinical and clinical testing of the Company’s product candidates and costs associated with its gene therapy research programs. The Company's research and development expenses consist of:
external research and development expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as academic research collaborators, contract research organizations (“CROs”) and contract development and manufacturing organizations (“CDMOs”) and other vendors for the production and analysis of drug substance and drug product; and
employee-related expenses for employees dedicated to research and development activities, including salaries, benefits and share-based compensation expense.
Research and development expenses also include costs of acquired product licenses, in-process research and development, and related technology rights where there is no alternative future use, costs of prototypes used in research and development, consultant fees and amounts paid to collaborators.
All research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred in accordance with ASC 730, Research and Development. The Company accounts for non-refundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities as expenses when the service has been performed or when the goods have been received, rather than when the payment is made.
Income Taxes
The Company utilizes the liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes, as set forth in ASC 740, Income Taxes.  Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is established against deferred tax assets when, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company's policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as income tax expense.
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Share-Based Compensation
The Company follows the provisions of ASC 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees, non-employees and non-employee directors, including employee stock options, restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and options granted to employees to purchase shares under the 2016 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “ESPP”). Share-based compensation expense is based on the grant date fair value estimated in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718 and is generally recognized as an expense over the requisite service period, net of estimated forfeitures. For grants containing performance-based vesting provisions, expense is recognized over the estimated achievement period only when the performance-based milestone is deemed probable of achievement. If performance-based milestones are later determined not to be probable of achievement, then all previously recorded stock-based compensation expense associated with such options will be reversed during the period in which the Company makes this determination.
The Company estimates forfeitures at the time of grant and revises those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from its estimates. The Company uses historical data to estimate pre-vesting forfeitures and record share-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. To the extent that actual forfeitures differ from the Company's estimates, the difference is recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period the estimates were revised.
Stock Options
The Company estimates the fair value of stock options granted to employees, non-employee directors and consultants on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Company's computation of stock-price volatility is based on daily historical volatility during the time period that corresponds to the expected option term. The Company's computation of expected term is determined using the expected term of stock option grants to employees based on an analysis of actual option exercises. The Company utilizes a dividend yield of zero based on the fact that the Company has never paid cash dividends to stockholders and has no current intentions to pay cash dividends. The risk-free interest rate is based on the zero-coupon U.S. Treasury yield at the date of grant for a term equivalent to the expected term of the option.
The weighted-average assumptions used to estimate grant date fair value of stock options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model were as follows for the nine month periods ended September 30, 2021 and 2020:
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2021202020212020
Expected common stock price volatility113%117%113%117%
Risk-free interest rate
0.68%-0.84%
0.22%-0.26%
0.31%-0.96%
0.22%-1.34%
Expected term of options (years)5.24.85.24.6
Expected dividend yield
RSUs
The Company estimates the fair value of RSUs granted to employees using the closing market price of the Company's common stock on the date of grant.
ESPP
In April 2016, the Company's board of directors adopted the ESPP pursuant to which the Company may sell up to an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of its common stock. The ESPP was approved by the Company’s stockholders in June 2016. The ESPP is considered compensatory and the fair value of the discount and look back provision are estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and recognized over the six month withholding period prior to purchase.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has evaluated recent accounting pronouncements through the date the financial statements were issued and filed with the SEC and believes that there are none that will have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
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3. Common Stock
In July 2021, the Company completed an underwritten public offering in which the Company sold 13,397,500 shares of its common stock, which included the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase an additional 1,747,500 shares of the Company’s common stock, at a price to the public of $8.60 per share and at a price to the underwriters of $8.084 per share.
The net proceeds from the July 2021 public offering, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other expenses payable by the Company totaling approximately $7.4 million, was approximately $107.8 million.
In June 2020, the Company completed an underwritten public offering in which the Company sold 28,503,220 shares of its common stock, which included the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares of the Company’s common stock, at a price to the public of $4.100 per share and at a price to the underwriters of $3.854 per share. The Company also sold to certain investors in lieu of common stock, pre-funded warrants to purchase 1,914,280 shares of its common stock at a price to the public of $4.099 per share underlying each pre-funded warrant, and at a price to the underwriters of $3.853 per share underlying each pre-funded warrant.
Concurrently with the June 2020 public offering, the Company completed a private placement in which the Company sold 8,649,453 shares of its common stock to affiliates of Vivo Capital, LLC and Samsara BioCapital, LP, at a sale price equal to the price to the public in the underwritten public offering.
The net proceeds from the June 2020 public offering and private placement, after deducting underwriting discounts, underwriting and placement agent commissions and other expenses totaling approximately $10.1 million, was approximately $150.1 million.
The Company evaluated the pre-funded warrants for liability or equity classification in accordance with the provisions of ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and ASC 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging. Based on the provisions governing the pre-funded warrants in the applicable agreement, the Company determined that the pre-funded warrants meet the criteria required to be classified as an equity award subject to the guidance in ASC 815-10 and 815-40 and should effectively be treated as outstanding common shares in both basic and diluted earnings per share calculations.
4. Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic and diluted net loss per common share is determined by dividing net loss by the weighted average common shares and pre-funded warrants outstanding during the period. Basic and diluted shares outstanding includes the weighted average effect of the Company's outstanding pre-funded warrants as the exercise of such pre-funded warrants requires nominal consideration to be given for the delivery of the corresponding shares of common stock. As of September 30, 2021 and September 30, 2020, the Company had 3,164,280 pre-funded warrants outstanding, which if exercised, would increase the number of shares of common stock issued and outstanding. For the periods when there is a net loss, shares underlying stock options and RSUs have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per common share because the effect of including such shares would be anti-dilutive. Therefore, the weighted average common shares used to calculate both basic and diluted net loss per common share would be the same.
The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted net loss per common share for the periods indicated:
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2021202020212020
Basic and diluted net loss per common share calculation:  
Net loss$(24,551)$(25,450)$(81,489)$(59,115)
Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic and dilutive105,217 92,675 97,370 67,931 
Net loss per share of common stock - basic and diluted$(0.23)$(0.27)$(0.84)$(0.87)
The following potentially dilutive securities have been excluded from the computations of diluted weighted average common shares outstanding for the periods presented, as the effect of including such shares would be anti-dilutive:
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2021202020212020
Stock options outstanding9,089 7,426 9,089 7,426 
Restricted stock units1,903 1,727 1,903 1,727 
Total10,992 9,153 10,992 9,153 
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5. Cash, Cash Equivalents and Available for Sale Securities
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of 90 days or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $179.9 million and $66.4 million, respectively. Cash and cash equivalents included cash of $97.0 million at September 30, 2021 and $8.4 million at December 31, 2020. Cash and cash equivalents at September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 included $82.9 million and $58.0 million, respectively, of investments in money market funds.
The Company considers securities with original maturities of greater than 90 days at the date of purchase to be available for sale securities. As of September 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company held available for sale securities of $62.1 million and $143.7 million, respectively, all of which have maturities of less than one year.
The Company evaluates securities with unrealized losses, if any, to determine whether the decline in fair value has resulted from credit loss or other factors. The Company has determined that there were no credit losses in fair value of its investments as of September 30, 2021. Factors considered in determining whether a loss resulted from a credit loss or other factors included the length of time and extent to which the investment’s fair value has been less than the cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, the extent of the loss related to credit of the issuer, the expected cash flows from the security, the Company’s intent to sell the security, and whether or not the Company will be required to sell the security before the recovery of its amortized cost.
The Company classifies these securities as available for sale. However, the Company has not sold and does not currently intend to sell its investments and the Company believes it is more likely than not that the Company will recover the carrying value of these investments.
The Company believes that its existing cash, cash equivalents and available for sale securities as of September 30, 2021 will be sufficient to fund its currently planned capital expenditure requirements and operating expenses for at least the next 12 months from the filing of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. See Note 10 to the Financial Statements for information about the Company’s follow-on public offering completed in October 2021.
Available for sale securities, including carrying value and estimated fair values, are summarized as follows:
 As of September 30, 2021
 Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
U.S. Treasury securities$8,999 $ $ $8,999 
Corporate debt securities43,614  (8)43,606 
Asset-backed securities9,489  (3)9,486 
Total$62,102 $ $(11)$62,091 

 As of December 31, 2020
 Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
U.S. Treasury securities$54,225 $8 $ $54,233 
Corporate debt securities79,282 4 (10)79,276 
Asset-backed securities10,164 1  10,165 
Total$143,671 $13 $(10)$143,674 
The Company’s available for sale securities are reported at fair value on the Company’s balance sheet. Unrealized gains (losses) are reported within other comprehensive income in the statements of comprehensive loss. The cost of securities sold and any realized gains/losses from the sale of available for sale securities are based on the specific identification method. The
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changes in accumulated other comprehensive income associated with the unrealized gain on available for sale securities during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively, were as follows:
 Three months ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30, 2021
 2021202020212020
Beginning balance$3 $ $3 $ 
Current period changes in fair value before reclassifications, net of tax(14)1 (14)1 
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax    
Total other comprehensive income (loss)$(14)$1 (14)1 
Ending balance$(11)$1 $(11)$1 
6. Share-Based Compensation
Pursuant to the evergreen provisions of the Company's 2013 stock incentive plan (the “2013 Plan”), annual increases have resulted in the addition of an aggregate of approximately 13,081,000 additional shares to the 2013 Plan, including for 2021, an increase of approximately 2,542,000 shares. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had approximately 3,031,000 shares available for grant under the 2013 Plan.
In October 2019, the Company's board of directors adopted its 2019 Inducement Stock Incentive Plan (the “2019 Inducement Plan”) to reserve initially 1,000,000 shares of its common stock to be used exclusively for grants of awards to individuals who were not previously employees or directors of the Company as a material inducement to such individuals’ entry into employment with the Company within Rule 5635(c)(4) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules. The terms and conditions of the 2019 Inducement Plan are substantially similar to those of the 2013 Plan. In March 2020, the Company's board of directors amended the 2019 Inducement Plan to reserve an additional 1,000,000 shares of its common stock for issuance under the plan, and in February 2021 and September 2021, the Company's board of directors further amended the 2019 Inducement Plan to reserve an additional 600,000 shares, and an additional 1,000,000 shares, respectively, of its common stock for issuance under the plan. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had approximately 1,314,000 shares available for grant under the 2019 Inducement Plan.
Share-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, includes expenses related to stock options and RSUs granted to employees, non-employee directors and consultants, as well as options granted to employees to purchase shares under the ESPP. Stock-based compensation by award type was as follows:
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2021202020212020
Stock options$1,485 $1,089 $3,997 $3,556 
Restricted stock units1,101 723 2,896 2,411 
Employee stock purchase plan40 35 104 77 
Total$2,626 $1,847 $6,997 $6,044 
The Company allocated stock-based compensation expense in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss as follows:
 Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
 2021202020212020
Research and development$1,476 $882 $4,138 $2,986 
General and administrative1,150 965 2,859 3,058 
Total$2,626 $1,847 $6,997 $6,044 
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Stock Options
A summary of the stock option activity, weighted average exercise prices, options outstanding, exercisable and expected to vest as of September 30, 2021 is as follows (in thousands except weighted average exercise price):
 Number of Shares Underlying OptionsWeighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Outstanding, December 31, 20208,928 $9.22 
Granted969 $7.84 
Exercised(487)$2.89 
Forfeited(321)$4.49 
Outstanding, September 30, 20219,089 $9.85 
Vested and exercisable, September 30, 20215,154 $12.71 
Vested and expected to vest, September 30, 20218,768 $9.99 
As of September 30, 2021, there were approximately $15.3 million of unrecognized compensation costs, net of estimated forfeitures, related to stock option awards grants, which are expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted average period of 3.0 years.
RSUs
The following table presents a summary of the Company's outstanding RSU awards granted as of September 30, 2021 (in thousands except weighted average grant-date fair value):
Restricted
Stock
Units
Weighted Average
Grant-Date
Fair Value
Outstanding, December 31, 20201,958 $6.95 
Awarded329 $7.44 
Vested(181)$4.32 
Forfeited(203)$21.60 
Outstanding, September 30, 20211,903 $5.76 
Outstanding, Expected to vest1,750 $5.76 
As of September 30, 2021, there were approximately $7.5 million of unrecognized compensation costs, net of estimated forfeitures, related to RSUs grants, which are expected to be recognized over a remaining weighted average period of 2.7 years.
ESPP
As of September 30, 2021, there were 753,410 shares available for future purchases under the ESPP. There were 27,529 and 32,821 shares issued under the ESPP during the three months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. There were 51,951 and 76,402 shares of common stock issued under the ESPP during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Cash proceeds from ESPP purchases were $146 thousand and $147 thousand during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
7. Income Taxes    
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021 and the three months ended September 2020, the Company recorded no income tax benefit. For the nine months ended September 30, 2020, the Company recorded a $3.7 million income tax benefit primarily to reflect a settlement of a local tax audit.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) on March 27, 2020. The CARES Act provides numerous tax provisions and other stimulus measures, including the immediate refund of minimum tax credits.  In April 2021, the Company received the remaining balance, approximately $1.8 million, of its minimum tax credits refund.
The Company will continue to evaluate its ability to realize its deferred tax assets on a quarterly basis and will adjust such amounts in light of changing facts and circumstances including, but not limited to, future projections of taxable income, tax
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legislation, rulings by relevant tax authorities, the progress of ongoing tax audits and the regulatory approval of products currently under development. Any additional changes to the valuation allowance recorded on deferred tax assets in the future would impact the Company’s income taxes.
8. Fair Value Measurements
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The fair value standard also establishes a three-level hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
The following table presents, for each of the fair value hierarchy levels required under ASC 820, the Company's assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2021:
 Fair Value Measurement Using
 Quoted prices in
active markets for
identical assets
(Level 1)
Significant other
observable inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
unobservable
inputs
(Level 3)
Assets   
Investments in money market funds*$82,872 $ $ 
Investments in U.S. Treasury securities$8,999 $ $ 
Investments in corporate debt securities$ $43,606 $ 
Investments in asset-backed securities$ $9,486 $ 
*Investments in money market funds are reflected in cash and cash equivalents in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The following table presents, for each of the fair value hierarchy levels required under ASC 820, the Company's assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2020:
 Fair Value Measurement Using
 Quoted prices in
active markets for
identical assets
(Level 1)
Significant other
observable inputs
(Level 2)
Significant
unobservable
inputs
(Level 3)
Assets   
Investments in money market funds*$58,042 $ $ 
Investments in U.S. Treasury securities 54,233   
Investments in corporate debt securities$ $79,275 $ 
Investments in asset-backed securities  10,166  
*Investments in money market funds are reflected in cash and cash equivalents in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
No transfer of assets between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value measurement hierarchy occurred during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2021.
9. Commitments and Contingencies
Zimura - Archemix Corp.
The Company is party to an agreement with Archemix Corp. (“Archemix”) under which the Company in-licensed rights in certain patents, patent applications and other intellectual property related to Zimura and pursuant to which the Company may be required to pay sublicense fees and make milestone payments (the “C5 License Agreement”). Under the C5 License Agreement, for each anti-C5 aptamer product that the Company may develop under the agreement, including Zimura, the Company is obligated to make additional payments to Archemix of up to an aggregate of $50.5 million if the Company achieves specified development, clinical and regulatory milestones, with $24.5 million of such payments relating to a first indication, $23.5 million of such payments relating to second and third indications and $2.5 million of such payments relating to sustained delivery applications. Under the C5 License Agreement, the Company is also obligated to make additional
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payments to Archemix of up to an aggregate of $22.5 million if the Company achieves specified commercial milestones based on net product sales of all anti-C5 products licensed under the agreement. The Company is also obligated to pay Archemix a double-digit percentage of specified non-royalty payments the Company may receive from any sublicensee of its rights under the C5 License Agreement. The Company is not obligated to pay Archemix a running royalty based on net product sales in connection with the C5 License Agreement.
IC-100 - University of Florida and the University of Pennsylvania
Under its exclusive license agreement with the University of Florida Research Foundation, Incorporated (“UFRF”) and the University of Pennsylvania (“Penn”) for rights to IC-100, the Company is obligated to make payments to UFRF, for the benefit of Penn and UFRF (together, the “Licensors”), of up to an aggregate of $23.5 million if the Company achieves specified clinical, marketing approval and reimbursement approval milestones with respect to a licensed product and up to an aggregate of an additional $70.0 million if the Company achieves specified commercial sales milestones with respect to a licensed product. The Company is also obligated to pay UFRF, for the benefit of the Licensors, a low single-digit percentage of net sales of licensed products. The Company is also obligated to pay UFRF, for the benefit of the Licensors, a double-digit percentage of specified non-royalty payments the Company may receive from any third-party sublicensee of the licensed patent rights. Further, if the Company receives a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher from the FDA in connection with obtaining marketing approval for a licensed product and the Company subsequently uses such priority review voucher in connection with a different product candidate, the Company will be obligated to pay UFRF, for the benefit of the Licensors, aggregate payments in the low double-digit millions of dollars based on certain approval and commercial sales milestones with respect to such other product candidate. In addition, if the Company sells such a priority review voucher to a third party, the Company will be obligated to pay UFRF, for the benefit of the Licensors, a low double-digit percentage of any consideration received from such third party in connection with such sale.
IC-200 - University of Pennsylvania and the University of Florida
Under its exclusive license agreement with Penn and UFRF for rights to IC-200, the Company is obligated to make payments to Penn, for the benefit of the Licensors, of up to an aggregate of $15.7 million if the Company achieves specified clinical, marketing approval and reimbursement approval milestones with respect to one licensed product and up to an aggregate of an additional $3.1 million if the Company achieves these same milestones with respect to a different licensed product. In addition, the Company is obligated to make payments to Penn, for the benefit of the Licensors, of up to an aggregate of $48.0 million if the Company achieves specified commercial sales milestones with respect to one licensed product and up to an aggregate of an additional $9.6 million if the Company achieves these same milestones with respect to a different licensed product. The Company is also obligated to pay Penn, for the benefit of the Licensors, a low single-digit percentage of net sales of licensed products. The Company is also obligated to pay Penn, for the benefit of the Licensors, a high single-digit to a mid-teen percentage of specified non-royalty payments the Company may receive from any third-party sublicensee of the licensed patent rights, with the applicable percentage based upon the stage of development of the sublicensed product at the time the Company enters into the sublicense. Further, if the Company receives a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher from the FDA in connection with obtaining marketing approval for a licensed product and the Company subsequently uses such priority review voucher in connection with a different product candidate outside the scope of the agreement, the Company will be obligated to pay Penn, for the benefit of the Licensors, aggregate payments in the low double-digit millions of dollars based on certain approval and commercial sales milestones with respect to such other product candidate. In addition, if the Company sells such a priority review voucher to a third party, the Company will be obligated to pay Penn, for the benefit of the Licensors, a high single-digit percentage of any consideration received from such third party in connection with such sale.
miniCEP290 Program - University of Massachusetts
Under its exclusive license agreement with the University of Massachusetts (“UMass”) for its miniCEP290 program, which targets LCA10, which is associated with mutations in the CEP290 gene, the Company is obligated to pay UMass up to an aggregate of $14.75 million in cash and issue up to 75,000 shares of common stock of the Company if the Company achieves specified clinical and regulatory milestones with respect to a licensed product. In addition, the Company is obligated to pay UMass up to an aggregate of $48.0 million if the Company achieves specified commercial sales milestones with respect to a licensed product. The Company is also obligated to pay UMass royalties at a low single-digit percentage of net sales of licensed products. If the Company or any of its affiliates sublicenses any of the licensed patent rights or know-how to a third party, the Company will be obligated to pay UMass a high single-digit to a mid-tens percentage of the consideration received in exchange for such sublicense, with the applicable percentage based upon the stage of development of the licensed products at the time the Company or the applicable affiliate enters into the sublicense. If the Company receives a priority review voucher from the FDA in connection with obtaining marketing approval for a licensed product, and the Company subsequently uses such priority review voucher in connection with a different product candidate outside the scope of the agreement, the Company will be obligated to pay UMass a low-tens percentage of the fair market value of the priority review voucher at the time of
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approval of such product candidate and a low-twenties percentage of the fair market value of the priority review voucher at the time of achievement of a specified commercial sales milestone for such product candidate. In addition, if the Company sells such a priority review voucher to a third party, the Company will be obligated to pay UMass a low-thirties percentage of any consideration received from such third party in connection with such sale.
IC-500 - Former Equityholders of Inception 4
Under the agreement and plan of merger between the Company and Inception 4, Inc. (“Inception 4”), pursuant to which the Company acquired IC-500 and its other HtrA1 inhibitors (the “Inception 4 Merger Agreement”), the Company is obligated to make payments to the former equityholders of Inception 4 of up to an aggregate of $105 million, subject to the terms and conditions of the Inception 4 Merger Agreement, if the Company achieves certain specified clinical and regulatory milestones with respect to IC-500 or any other product candidate from its HtrA1 inhibitor program, with $45 million of such potential payments relating to GA and $60 million of such potential payments relating to wet AMD. Under the Inception 4 Merger Agreement, the Company does not owe any commercial milestones or royalties based on net sales. The future milestone payments will be payable in the form of shares of the Company's common stock, calculated based on the price of its common stock over a five-trading day period preceding the achievement of the relevant milestone, unless and until the issuance of such shares would, together with all other shares issued in connection with the acquisition, exceed an overall maximum limit of approximately 7.2 million shares, which is equal to 19.9% of the number of issued and outstanding shares of the Company's common stock as of the close of business on the business day prior to the closing date of the Inception 4 acquisition, and will be payable in cash thereafter. The Inception 4 Merger Agreement also includes customary indemnification obligations to the former equityholders of Inception 4, including for breaches of the representations and warranties, covenants and agreements of the Company and its subsidiaries (other than Inception 4) in the Inception 4 Merger Agreement.
Employment Contracts
The Company also has letter agreements with certain employees that require the funding of a specific level of payments if certain events, such as a termination of employment in connection with a change in control or termination of employment by the employee for good reason or by the Company without cause, occur.
 Contract Service Providers
In addition, in the course of normal business operations, the Company has agreements with contract service providers to assist in the performance of the Company’s research and development and manufacturing activities. Expenditures to CROs and CDMOs represent significant costs in preclinical and clinical development. Subject to required notice periods and the Company’s obligations under binding purchase orders and any cancellation fees that the Company may be obligated to pay, the Company can elect to discontinue the work under these agreements at any time. 
Legal Proceedings
On January 11, 2017, a putative class action lawsuit was filed against the Company and certain of its current and former executive officers in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, captioned Frank Micholle v. IVERIC bio, Inc., et al., No. 1:17-cv-00210. On March 9, 2017, a related putative class action lawsuit was filed against the Company and the same group of its current and former executive officers in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, captioned Wasson v. IVERIC bio, Inc., et al., No. 1:17-cv-01758. These cases were consolidated on March 13, 2018. On June 4, 2018, the lead plaintiff filed a consolidated amended complaint (the “CAC”). The CAC purports to be brought on behalf of shareholders who purchased the Company’s common stock between March 2, 2015 and December 12, 2016. The CAC generally alleges that the Company and certain of its officers violated Sections 10(b) and/or 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and Rule 10b-5 promulgated thereunder by making allegedly false and/or misleading statements concerning the results of the Company’s Phase 2b trial and the prospects of the Company’s Phase 3 trials for Fovista in combination with anti-VEGF agents for the treatment of wet AMD. The CAC seeks unspecified damages, attorneys’ fees, and other costs. The Company and individual defendants filed a motion to dismiss the CAC on July 27, 2018. On September 18, 2019, the court issued an order dismissing some, but not all, of the allegations in the CAC. On November 18, 2019, the Company and the individual defendants filed an answer to the complaint. On June 12, 2020, the lead plaintiff filed a motion for class certification. On August 11, 2020, the defendants filed a notice of non-opposition to lead plaintiff's motion for class certification. On April 23, 2021, the court issued an order staying the action until July 1, 2021,